Gynaecological Cancer access options
Gynaecological cancer is a type of cancer that affects a woman's reproductive system. Depending on which organ is affected the following main types can be distinguished: Cervical Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Womb Cancer, Vaginal Cancer, Vulval Cancer, Cervical cancer. Cervical cancer occurs in the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. This part of the women's body is called cervix. In most cases, it is caused by a virus called Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Ovarian cancer forms in the tissues of the ovaries, the female reproductive glands. Ovaries are made up of 3 main kinds of cells: cells that cover the outer ... Read more » surface of the ovary, germ cells that produce the eggs, and cells that hold the ovary together and produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Each type of cell can develop into a different type of tumour. Epithelial ovarian cancer (also referred to here as ovarian carcinoma), which arise from the ovary's surface cells, accounting for approximately 90% of primary ovarian tumours. In some rare cases a tumour develops from other tissues within the ovary (non-epithelial ovarian cancer) like ovarian germ cells (the cells that produce the eggs) or structural tissue cells that hold the ovary together and produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone (stromal tumors). These tumours are mostly benign (non-cancerous) and never spread beyond the ovary. Benign tumours can be treated with surgery by removing either the ovary or the part of the ovary that contains the tumour. Malignant (cancerous) ovarian tumours can spread (metastasis) to other parts of the body and can be fatal. Ovarian cancer is the 7th most common cancer in women worldwide (the 18th most common cancer overall), with 239,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012. It often has very mild or no symptoms at the early stages, so the disease is generally advanced when it is diagnosed. Womb cancer Womb cancer, or cancer of the uterus, is a common cancer in women. It is sometimes called uterine or endometrial cancer. Most womb cancers originate from the endometrium, the lining of the womb, but in more rare cases it can start in the muscles that surround the uterus. Vaginal cancer What is vaginal cancer? Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer that originates from cells of the vagina. There are mainly 2 types of vaginal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of vaginal cancer and it originates from the thin flat cells of the vagina. Vulval or vulvar cancer originates from the cells of the vulva, the external female organ. It is a rare cancer which accounts for less than 1 in every 100 cancers diagnosed in women. The incidence is higher in women above 65 years but about 15% of cases are in women under the age of 50.